Saturday, July 28, 2012

Seven Verities (Tattvas) in Jainism

Seven Verities (Tattvas) in Jainism
(Based on Tattvārth Sutra)
Dr Anekant Kumar Jain*

Total release of kārmika matter from the self (soul) by self realization is liberation / emancipation/ salvation. Everybody feels pain in transmigration and wants to eliminate this pain.

Right belief-knowledge–conduct together constitute the path of liberation. Umā Svāmi, the Ācārya revered by all sects of Jains, wrote an important text in Sanskrit in the first century AD. This text called TattvārathSutra, considered as Bible of Jains, has ten chapters and 357 sutras. This text is also called as text for attaining liberation (Mokşa Sāstra}. TattvārathaSutra starts with the following sutra:
Samyagdarśanajňānacāritrāņimokşamārgaħ (TS I/1)

Umā Svāmi defined right belief as firm belief in the true nature of the principles/ verities/tattvas, Right belief arises from the innate disposition or by acquisition of right knowledge. The living being (jīva), the non living beings (ajīva), influx {āsrava), bondage (bańdha), stoppage (sańvara), dissociation (nirjarā) and liberation (mokşa) constitute the seven tattvas /verities. Sutras 2nd and 4th from first chapter of TattvārthSutra define right belief and verities.
Tattvārthaśraddhānań samyagdarśanam.
Jjīvājīvāsravabańdhsańvaranirjarāmokşastattvam. (TS/I/2, 3)

This classification of the fundamental principles into seven verities is metaphysical with overtones of spiritual values. To these seven verities, merit (punya) and demerit (papa) have been added and the nine verities called padārthas giving them a flavour of religious content.

1. Jīva, the living being
In this world, we do not meet jīva or pure soul as such. Jīva or the living being is a mix of pure soul and non-living being i.e. pure soul bonded with kārmika matter. In common parlance, jīva is translated as soul or living being. An average individual, due to ignorance, regards his body as his soul and all thoughts and attention to keep it in comfort. The root cause of our suffering lies in our ignorance of the essential characteristics of our soul.
According to Jain philosophy, living being is neither created nor destroyed. As already indicated, living being and non-living being are the two substance types which comprise the universe. The primary characteristic of living being is consciousness that distinguishes it from non-living being. Attentiveness is its inherent feature, as without it, it cannot have conation. It is the prerequisites of any kind of knowledge.

1.1    Distinctive characteristics of jīva (Living being)
The further distinctive characteristics of living being mentioned by Umā Svāmi in TattvārathSutra is
Upayogo lakşaņam (TS/II/8)
*Sr Lecturer, Deptt. Of Jain Philosophy; Shri Lal Bhadur Shastri Rastriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth (Deemed University). Qutab Institutional Area, New Delhi – 110016, Ph: 9868034740
i.e. manifestation of consciousness is the distinctive feature of the jīva. That, which arises from both internal and external causes and concomitant with consciousness, is upyoga (active or attentive consciousness). 1

Consciousness manifests itself in two ways namely intuition (darśana) and knowledge (jňāna). The difference between intuition and knowledge is that the former is detail-less knowledge (a feeling of sheer existence) while the later is with all the details of the object of knowledge. It is important to understand the difference between these two terms as they occur very frequently in Jaina texts. Darśana is an indeterminate stage in the process of cognition. The object of knowledge gets in contact with sense organs and initiates the process of cognition. At this stage it is just a mere awareness of the existence of the object. So at this stage there is an indefinite and indistinct idea about the object in question. The details about the object are not perceived and so there is no question of identifying the object as belonging to a particular class or group. The process of discrimination or analysis that is inherent in the human mind enables the enhancement of mere sensual awareness into sensual perception. The vague consciousness of the object presented to the senses is replaced by a definite comprehension of its class and characteristics.  The distinction of the object is grasped and this paves the way for a further expansion of the knowledge domain.

According to Pujya Pāda, knowledge is with details and the intuition is without details. Apprehension of the mere object (the universal) is intuition and awareness of the particulars is knowledge.2

1.2    Two main types of living beings
Sańsāriņo muktāśca  (TS/II/10)

Living beings are further described as of two types i.e. empirical souls or the Tran-migratory soul (sańsāri jīva) and Pure or liberated souls (Muktātmā). Tran-migration (metem-psychosis) means moving in an endless cycle of birth-death-birth and the living beings going through transmigration are called sańsāri jīva / empirical souls.  Those living beings who have freed themselves from transmigration are the emancipated / liberated/ pure souls (Muktātmā).

1.4    Living beings are inter-related / inter dependent/ help each other.
Parasparopgraho jīvānām. (TS/V/21)

  Souls are also substnaces3. The function of soul is to help one another.7 the word paraspara means reciprocity of action. Parasparasya upgraha means rendering help to one another. What is it? Is it the mutual help between master and the servant or the teacher and taught. The master renders help to servants by paying them in cash while the servants render their physical and mental services to the master in return. The preceptor teaches what is good in this life and thereafter and makes his disciples follow them. The disciples benefit their preceptor by their devoted services.  What is the purpose of the repetition of the word ‘upgraha’? It indicates that living beings are also the cause of pleasure and pain, life and death of one another.4 This sutra   is very important and famous in Jain community and used as a logo of Jainism.

2. Non – Soul (ajīva)-
Jaina cosmology regards the universe as comprising six substances that are technically called dravyas. It is real and consists of Jīva (soul) and Ajīva (non-soul). While the Jaina Ācāryas have divided the substances into broad categories of Jīva and Ajīva, or Living and non- living, they have further divided Ajīva (non-living) into five categories, namely:  – (1) Pudgala, (2) Dharma (3) Adharma (4) Ākāśa and (5) Kāla.

                                    According to Umā Svāmi–

                                    Ajīvakāya dharmādharmākāśapudgalaħ   and Kālśca . (TS/V/1, 39)

The non soul substances (bodies) are the medium of motion, the medium of rest, space and matter. Here in the first sutra the term ‘Kāya’ is derived from ‘body’. Here it is applied on the basis of analogy. The non soul substances are called bodies on the analogy of the body of a Living being. The word ‘body’ is intended to indicate a multitude of space point. The space – points of the Medium of Motion are a multitude. 5.

Besides these are called bodies in order to indicate that, there is no multitude of space-points in time. Time has only one space point. So it is not called by with ‘Kāya’ / ‘Body’

According to Kundkundācārya also there are only five Astikāyas, like Jīva, Pudgala, Dharma, Adharma and Ākāśa. Time (Kāla) is not Astikāya because of only one space point. 6.

So, The Non- soul (substances are:)

1.      Dharma          =          Medium of motion to soul and matter.
2.      Adharma        =          Medium of rest to soul and matter
3.      Ākāsha           =          Space
4.      Pudgala          =          Matter
5.      Kāla                =          Time

2.1. – Medium of Motion & Rest (Dharma & Adharm)

            Gatisthityupagrahau dharmādharmayorupakāraħ. (TS/V/17)

Dharma in Jainism has been defined as a substance which it self does not move but helps the moving living beings and matters in their movement, just as water of river assists to movement of moving fishes. The fish swims by its own force but the water is essential for swimming. 7.

Adharama is the principal of rest and pervades the whole universe. This is the auxiliary cause of rest to the soul and matter. Adharma has been defined as a cause of helping the matters and souls which are at rest, in taking rest just as earth, which is at rest, helps those who want to stay and take rest. 8.

It is because of this principle that bodies in motion are enabled to enjoy a state of rest. Dharma is a substance which provides the conditions for the movement of other substances, which remaining unmoved, Adharma, on the contrary, is the condition that helps the various substances to return to a restful state from their mobility, in the same way a tree helps a traveler to stop and rest in its shade.

The medium of motion and rest never lose their special characteristics of facilitating movement and rest etc., and their common characteristics of existence etc., they are eternal, fixed in number and colour less (non-material).9. These are also without activity.10. There are innumerable points of space in the medium of motion, the medium of rest.11.  They are located in the space of universe 12 and pervade the entire universe- space.13.

2.2 Ākāśā (Space)
Space is infinite, eternal and imperceptible. 14. All substances have extension and extension is afforded only by space. Space is eternal pervasive and formless substances which provides room for the existence of all extended substances. 15. Though imperceptible, its existence is inferred from the fact that substances, which are extended can exist only in some place. Thus space is a necessary condition for the existence of all extended substances. The Jains distinguish between two kinds of space, the one that is characterized by the presence of motion and all other substances and the other in which motion and other substances are absent. Lokākāśa is the word of life and movement and constitutes the ground of all human activity and experience.

But in the Alokākāśa there is no motion or activities of any substances. The units of space, called space points are infinite.16.

2.3 Pudgala (Matter)
Pudgala’ is a definitive word used for matter in Jainism. Matter (Pudgala) has been defined as that which undergoes modification by combination (Pud = to combine) and dissociations (Gala = to dissociate). 17. It has rūpa / form, meaning, the qualities of colour, touch, taste and smell i.e. it possesses a form (Mūrta) or defined as concrete. 18. Matter signifies anything that is liable to integration and disintegration. It is an eternal substance with regard to quantity and quality. It may increase or diminish in volume without any addition or loss of particles. All material substances are characterized by the tendency to form aggregates (Skandh) or to break up into smaller and smaller parts. The smallest part, which cannot be divided further, is the atom (aņu).19. Compound objects of the material world including senses, mind and breath are the aggregates of atoms20. Sound has been regarded not as a quality but only as a modification of matter21. According to Kundkund, matter is an entity which can be cognized by the five sense organs22.

He further says that both parmāņu (individual part of matter) and aggregates are matter as they are the modifications of several matters. Matter exists in two states namely parmāņu and aggregate. So he classified matter further in four classes namely: skandha (aggregate), Skandh deśa (aggregate occupying space), Skandh Pradeśh (aggregate occupying limited space) and parmāņus23.     
2.4 Time / Kāla
Time also is a non-living being substance.24 It has no body as it occupies only one space point and has no extension or body. Still it is classified as a substance as it has the essential characteristics of substance namely origination, destruction and permanence and that which is an aggregate of qualities and modes. Both these characteristics also apply to time25. Transformation in the substance cannot be conceived without the presence of time.
Vartanāpariņāmakriyaћ Paratvāparatve ca Kālasya (TS/V/22)   

Primary attributes of time are assisting substances in their continuous transformation; modifications, in their priority and non-priority in time etc. From practical viewpoint time is expressed in terms of year, month, day, hour ad minute etc. Smallest unit of time is called samaya (infinitely small part of time) in Jain texts. And it consists of infinite instants –
So(a)nantasamayaћ (TS/V/40)

Thus Jain texts describe living being and matter as the fundamental verities comprising the cosmos. They both interact and try to influence each other. Soul though has its nature of bliss and infinite knowledge and hence tries to get rid of all matter impurities associated with it. Hence from the spiritual viewpoint, Jains define the next five states of their interaction the last being the pure state of soul as the five verities. We shall now present a brief preview of these five now from spiritual viewpoint. 

3.  Āsrava or influx
Activities of mind, body and speech (called yoga in Jain texts) cause vibrations in the environment around soul. These vibrations cause the kārmika particles (matter particles) flow towards the soul. This flow of kārmika particles towards soul is called Āsrava. The soul forgets its own nature due to its being veiled by kārmika impurities called karmas themselves. Jiva’s involvement in the transmigratory cycle is due this influx.26 Just like water flows in a pond through a number of streamlets, so also karma particles flow towards soul from all directions due to activities of mind, body and speech. 27

Kāyavāđmanaħ karma yogaħ.  sa āsravaħ. (TS/VI/1, 2)

3.1       Punya (merit) and Pāpa (demerit)
According to Umā Svāmi, there are two kinds of influx namely: Punyāsrava or influx of meritorious kārmika particles and Pāpāsrava or influx of De-meritorious kārmika particles.  Auspicious activities of mind body and speech are the causes of meritorious influx while inauspicious activities of mind body and speech are the causes of de-meritorious influx28. If we add these two to the seven verities then we have nine padārthas29

What is good and what is bad? Killing, stealing, copulation, etc are the wicked activities of the body. Thoughts of violence, envy, calumny etc are wicked thought activities. Opposites of these are good activities.  An activity performed with good intentions is good and those performed with bad intention is bad30.  Good activities and intentions are the cause of influx of meritorious particles while evil activities and intentions are the cause of influx of de-meritorious particles. 

3.2  Two types of influx.

Influx is also classified in another way as follows:

Bhāvāsrava or psychic influx
Dravyāsrava or matter influx.

The former is concerned with thought activities and the later with actual influx of matter particles31. The causes of the former i.e. psychic influx are activities of five senses like attachment, e.g. flow of water into the boat through holes in its body when the boat is actually floating over water. Matter influx is the actual kārmika particles, which fills our environment. Psychic influx is further classified in five categories namely delusion (mithyātva), lack of self-control (avirati), pramāda (inadvertence), yoga (activity) and kaşāya (passions) 32.

3.3 Influx varies from person to person
According to Umā Svāmi, there are two kinds of influx namely that of persons tainted with passions which extends transmigration and the other of persons who are free from passions which prevents or shortens it or is not affected by it. 33

Persons are of two types, namely those actuated by passions (called sakaşāya) and those who are free from passions (called akaşāya). Passions are anger, deceit, pride and greed. These passions are called kaşāya in Jain texts.  Sāmparāya is sańsāra (transmigration). Karma which leads to sańsāra is called Sāmparāyika. Īryā means yoga or movement / vibrations. Karmas caused by vibrations is called īryāpatha.  The influx of the former karma operates in the case of persons of perverted faith actuated by passions while the influx of later karma takes place in the case of ascetics who are free from passions34.

4. Bańdha (Bondage)

The principle of bondage is an important spiritual concept of Jainism. It is the bondage which leads one to ever increasing involvement in transmigration. Bondage is caused by influx of kārmika particles. Influx brings bondage. According to Umā Svāmi

sakaşāya  tvajjīvāħ karmaņo  yogyānpudgalānādatte sa bandhaħ (TS/VIII/2)
The individual self actuated by passions attracts particles of matter filling the environment, which are fit to turn into karma. This is called bondage.

How does influx of karmas bind the soul? The process is illustrated by the example of a person who has fully smeared his body with oil and stands out in the open where wind is blowing. It is natural that particles of dust should stick to his body. Similarly when the soul is rendered weak by various kinds of passions and thought activities, it gives room for kārmika particles to stick to it and get converted into karmas. It is invariably the process that the psychic influx or the thought activities are the direct and proximate causes of matter influx.

4.2 Bhāva bańdha, psychic bondage and dravya bańdh or mater bondage.
It is the conscious state of mind that binds the karma with the soul when the soul is excited by any of the causes like passion or attachment/aversion. Bondage is also of two types namely

Bhāva bańdha or bondage by emotion or psychic bondage and
Dravaya bańdha or matter bondage.

According to Nemi Canda Sidhānta Deva

Bajjhadi kammań jeņa du chedaņabhāveņa bhāvabandho so,
Kammmādpadesāņań aņņoņņapavesaņań idaro. 35

i.                    That modification of consciousness consisting of attachment or aversion by which karmas are bonded to the soul is known as psychic bondage. Psychic bondage is therefore the alliance of the soul with mental or psychic activities that are produced when the soul is excited with attachment or aversion to the worldly objects 36.
ii.                  There is a union of soul with actual karmas. This union consists of the interpenetration of the soul and karmas, and the bondage resulting bondage is called matter bondage37

4.3 Causes of bondage
According to Umā Svāmi

Mithyādarśanāviratipramādakaşāyayogā bandhahetavaħ  (TS/VIII/1)

i.e. Mithyātva (wrong belief), Avirati (non-abstinence), Pramāda (negligence), Kaşāya (passions) and Yoga (activities) are the causes of Bandh (bondage).

4.3.1        Wrong belief
It is the perversity of outlook. Wrong belief in these seven verities is called wrong belief.  It has many subdivisions like ekānta (solitary viewpoint), viparyaya (opposite of right knowledge), vinaya (               ), sańśaya (doubt) and ajnāna (lack of knowledge) 38.

4.3.2        Non abstinence
It is the absence of self-control. A person who has no control over his senses indulges in sense pleasures and he looses direction for self-realization. There are five vows in Jainism namely non violence, non stealing, speaking the truth, non possession and celibacy. Non-abstinence primarily means non-adherence to these five vows.

                                                Hińsānristeyābramhparigrahebhyo Viratirvaratam. (TS/VII/1)

4.3.3        Negligence
Negligence here means indifference to higher values of life. Indulgence in sensual pleasures leads one to negligence and it again leads to activities like listening to reprehensible talks (vikātha) or activities leading to sensual pleasures again. Reprehensible talks can be about affairs of an individual, state, leader, organization, women etc 39

4.3.4        Passions
Passions create states of the soul, which are intensely affective in nature. Feelings and emotions like anger, greed, deceit and pride are responsible for the influx and bondage of karmas.40

4.3.5        Activities.
Activities of mind, body and speech cause vibrations in the environment and affect the state of the soul. (TS/VI/1)

4.4          Four kinds of bondage
Bondage is of four types according to the nature and species of karmas, duration, fruition and quantity of space points. According to Umā Svāmi:

Prakŗitisthityanubhavapradeśāstdvidhayaħ (TS/VIII/3)

4.4.1    Prakŗiti bańdha Nature of the bondage
It refers to the nature of karma that has been bonded with the soul 41.

4.4.2 Duration of bondage
It refers to the state i.e. present and when it gets activated and is extinguished i.e. separated from the soul after fruition. 42

4.4.3        Potency or strength of karmas
 It refers to the intensity of experience resulting from the karmas which leads to the intensity if bondage. 43

4.4.4        Space points of karmas
It is concerned with the extensiveness and the aggregation of kārmika particles associated with the soul. 44

The three fold activities determine nature and space point bondages while the passions determine duration and potency of bondage.  This diversity of bondage is due to the degree and intensity of passions. If the soul does not take the modes of activities and passions, then the kārmika particles are destroyed. Hence the soul is not the cause of bondage. 45

The four types of bondages as discussed above are intimately associated and affect the soul accordingly.46

So far we have seen that the soul gets involved in the cycle of life and is bound due to influx of karmas. This bondage is beginning-less but it has an end. The soul with its inherent capacity is pure and perfect and can achieve the ultimate sate of eliminating all types of bondages to it.  This is possible by means of a process, which gradually stops new bondages and then eliminates the effects of exiting bondages (kşayopśama). From now onwards the self-realization starts.  
We therefore have to take steps in this direction namely

·         Sańvara or stoppage of influx and bondage (new).
·         Nirjarā or dissociation of existing karmas with the soul.

These steps follow that order i.e. Sańvara first and Nirjarā then.

i.         Sańvara - (Stoppage of influx of new karmās in soul)

Sańvara or stoppage of the influx of new karmās is the first significant step in the process of liberation of the soul from karma. Sańvara is the opposite of Aśrava; it is so called as it prevents the entry of karma into the soul. Umāsvāmi has given a precise definition – ‘The obstruction of influx is stoppage’. (Sańvara)

‘Āsravanirodhaћ sańvaraћ’ (TS/IX/1)

It is the harbinger of spiritual development that chooses the entry for new karmas. Continuing the earlier simile, if the entry of water in to a boat through a hole is to be stopped, the hole must be plugged. If the wind is blowing in through the window, the window must be closed. This is the common-sense remedy. The some principle applies to stoppage of influx of new karmas. If the influx is to be stopped, the activities, which cause it, must be stopped. If the passions are the cause, they must be subdued. Many of karamās are due to wrong belief. When a person is in a state of delusion or in the grip of a passion, he will not know what is good for the soul. He becomes deeply involve in attachments of the world and affected with miseries of various kinds. 47.

5.1. Dravya Sańvara and Bhāva Sańvara
Sańvara is of two types –

(i)                 Dravya Sańvara
(ii)               Bhāva Sańvara

Dravya sańvara refers to the stoppage of the influx of the karmic practices of matter. It helps reducing possibilities of the long duration of sańvara. Psychic accompaniment of the influx of karmic particles has also to be stopped. The stoppage of the psychic accompaniments and psychic causes of the influx of karma is the bhāvasamvara.48.

5.2. The means of stoppage –
According to Umāsvāmi stoppage is affected by control (Gupti), carefulness (Samiti), virtue (Dharma) contemplation (Anuprekşā), conquest by endurance (Parişahajaya), and conduct (Cāritra).
                                    Sa gupti samitidharmānuprekşāparişahajayacāritaiћ.(TS/IX/2)

                                      Gupti or attitude of restraint/Control.
That, by which the soul is protected from the causes of transmigration, is control (gupti). There are three kinds of Gupti. 49.

(i)                 Mangupti (restraint on mental activity)
(ii)               Vacanagupti (restraint on speech activity)
(iii)             Kāya gupti (restraint on body activity)

According to Umāsvāmi- Curbing activity well is control.
                                    Samyagyoganigraho guptiћ. (TS/IX/4)

5.2.2. Samiti (carefulness)
Carefulness in walking, speech, eating, lifting and lying down and depositing waste products constitute the five-fold regulation of activities.  

                                    Īryābhāşaişaņādānanīkşepotsargāћ samitayaћ (TS/IX/5)

5.2.3 Dharma – (virtue)
 There are ten virtues described by Umāsvāmi - Supreme forbearance (Kśhamā), Modesty (Mardava), straight forwardness (Ārjava), Truthfulness (Satya), purity (śauca), self-restraint (Sańyama), austerity (Tapa), renunciation (Tyāga), Non-attachment (Ākinchanya), celibacy (Brahmcarya) constitute virtues or duties (Dharma). The practice of these moral virtues coupled with the thought of evil caused by the opposites of these leads to stoppage of karmic inflow. (TS/IX/6)

5.2.4. Anuprekşā (Contemplation) –
Anuprekşā or reflection or contemplation on transitoriness etc. helps one to practice moral virtues such as forbearance and consequently leads to effective stoppage of karmas.  Reflection is mentioned in the middle for the sake of both. He who practices contemplation in this way is enabled to practice the moral virtues and also subdue of afflictions. 50. 

There are twelve type of contemplation according to Umāsvāmi. (TS/IX/7)

(i)                 Anityānuprekşā or Contemplation of Transitory-ness
(ii)               Aśaranānuprekşā or Contemplation of Helplessness
(iii)             Samsārānuprekşā or Contemplation of Transmigration
(iv)             Ekatvānuprekşā or Contemplation of loneliness
(v)               Anyatvānuprekşā or contemplation of Distinctness
(vi)             Aśucitvānuprekşā or contemplation of Impurity
(vii)           Āśravānuprekşā or contemplation of Influx
(viii)         Samvarānuprekşā or contemplation of stoppage
(ix)             Nirjarānuprekşā or contemplation of dissociation
(x)               Lokānuprekşā or contemplation of universe
(xi)             Bodhidurlabhānuprekşā – contemplation of rarity of enlightenment.
(xii)           Dharmānuprekşā – contemplation of truth proclaimed be religion.

5.2.5. Parişajaya (Conquest by endurance)

Parişajaya or victory over afflictions. According to Umāsvāmi the afflictions are to be endured so as not to swerve from the path of stoppage of karmās and for the sake of dissociation of Karmas.

                        Mārgācyavananirjarārtham Parişođhacyāћ (TS/IX/8) Types of afflictions
There are twenty two afflictions described by Umāsvāmi – (TS/IX/9)

1.      Kşuta or Hunger
2.      Pipāsā or thirst
3.      Śita or cold
4.      Uşņa or Hot
5.      Damśamaśaka or insect  - bites 
6.      Nāganya or Nakedness
7.      Arati or absence of pleasure
8.      Strī or women
9.      Caryā or pain arising from roaming
10.  Nişadyā or discomfort of postures
11.  Śayyā or uncomfortable couch
12.  Kroşa or scolding
13.  Vadha or injury
14.  Yācanā or begging
15.  Alābha or lack of gain
16.  Roga or illness
17.  Tŗņa- sparśa or pain inflicted by blades of grass.
18.  Mala or Dirt
19.  Satkāra puraskāra or reverence and honour (good as well as bad reception)
20.  Prajňā or conceit of learning
21.  Ajňāna or despair or uneasiness arising from ignorance.
22.  Adarśāna or Lack of Faith

5.2.6.Cāritra (Conduct)
Umāsvāmi mentioned the five kinds of conduct. (TS/IX/18)

(i)                 Sāmāyika or Equanimity
(ii)               Chedopasthāpnā or reinitiation
(iii)             Parihārviśuddhi or purity of non injury
(iv)             Sūkşmāmparāya or slight passion
(v)               Yathākhyāta or perfect conduct

It is clear from what has been stated above that stoppage results when there is spiritual development from various points. It is the activities and passion that load to transmigration. Their cessation on activities and conquest over passions stop the influx of Karmic matter, that is, results in Dravya- sańvara.

6. Nirjarā – (Dissociation of Karama)
After sańvara we came to the process of nirjarā. The function of sańvara is to arrest the influx of karma through different sources by stopping the inlets. But the function of nirjarā is to remove the accumulated Karma already present in the soul.

According to Pujyapāda – ‘The karmas fall off after giving pain or pleasure, as these cannot stay on after fruition at the end of their duration, just as food and similar things decay in course of time51. Dissociation takes place after the fruition of Karmas. 52.

6.1. Two kinds of dissociation of Karmas –
The separation of or dissociation of Karamas is of two kinds, namely ripening in the usual course (Vipākā or Akāma) and being made to ripen prematurely i.e. (Avipākjā) or (Sakāma).

In the great ocean of transmigration, the individual self wanders for countless periods of time, whirling round and round among the four states of existence in various births. And the auspicious and inauspicious Karmas associated with the self, reach the stage of fruition gradually and attain fruition and then dissociate themselves from the self. This is the first kind of dissociation without ripeness in the natural course of things. 53.

6.2. Method dissociation –
Dissociation is effected by penance and also by other ways, according to Umāsvāmi –
                                                Tapasā nirjarā ca. (TS/IX/3)

Dissociation by penance (austerity) dissociation also.
Penance (Tapa) is very important for both sańvara and nirjarā. Though penance (religious austerity) in included under the moral virtues, it is mentioned separately in order to indicate that it effects both stoppage and dissociation and that it is the chief cause of stoppage of influx. 54.

6.2.1. The twelve types of Penance – (austerities)
It is of two kinds                               
(i)                 External austerity
(ii)               Internal austerity

(i)                 External Austerities – (Penance)

There are six types of external austerities –  (TS/IX/19)

1.      Anašana or Fasting
2.      Avamodarya or reducing the diet.
3.      Vŗttiparisamkhyān or special restrictions for begging food.
4.      Rasaparityāga or giving up stimulating and delicious dishes.
5.      Viviktaśayyāsana or lonely habitation
6.      Kāyakleśa or mortification of the body

These are called external, as these are dependent on external things and can be seen by others.

(ii)               Internal Austerities (Penances)

There are six types of internal austerities – (TS/IX/20)

1. Prāyaścitta              or                     Expiation
2. Vinaya                     or                     Reverence
3. Vaiyāvritti                or                     Service
4. Svādhyāya               or                     Study of Agamās
5. Vyutsarga                or                     Renunciation
6. Dhyāna                   or                     Meditation

These are called Internal because these are development on internal things.

The soul regains its purity after the Karmas have fallen of either due to enjoyment or destruction. Kundakunda Ācārya has dealt with this subject in verses 144 to 146 of the Paňcāstikāya. 55 According to him, a person who has practiced a number of austerities and observed rules for the purifications of his activities will be able to shed away many of his Karmas. A person who understands the real nature of the self and the futility of attachment to objects of the world will have right knowledge and thereby acquire the ability to destroy the Karmas due to his purity of thought and action. He alone will be able to cast away his Karmas. Who on a account of his right knowledge contemplates on the self with full concentration. The force which right belief, right – knowledge and non-attachment generates becomes the course of premature shedding of Karmas. Pursuit of self-absorption results in shedding karmas by thoughts (Bhāva-nirjarā) first followed by   Karmic shedding (dravya-nirjarā) 56.

7.            Mokşa – salvation / Liberation
The last element of the seven elements is called Moksha. This is the ultimate goal of every religious practitioner like Sādhu, muni or monk, when the self is freed from the bondage of Karma and has passed beyond the possibility of rebirth it is said to have attained mokşa. Mokşa is the highest ideal to be attained by the self at the time of perfection. According to Umāsvāmi

                      Bandhahetvabhāvanirjarābhyām Kŗtsnakarmavipramokşo mokşaћ.  (TS/X/2)

Owing to the absence of the cause of bondage and with the functioning of the dissociation of Karmas, the annihilation of all Karmas is Liberation.

No new karmas flow in owing to the absence of causes such as perverted faith and as on. And the already acquired karmas fall of gradually in the presence of causes that lead to dissociation of Karmas. Owing to the absence of the cause of bondage and the functioning of dissociation indicate the case denoting cause. Therefore Liberation is the total destruction of all Karmas at the same time, after Levelling down the duration of all the remaining there Karmas, so as to be equal to that of the age – Karma (Āyu – Karma.)57

The final stage of self-realization is the stage absolute perfection in this stage of śukladhyāna. This stage lasts only for the period of time required to pronounce five shorts syllables. At the end of this period the soul attains perfect and disembodied liberation. This is a stage of perfection. However, the join conception of mokşa does not obliterate the individuality of each soul. It is neither merged nor is identical with anything higher than itself. Its individuality is not lost. This is the permanent personality of the soul even in the state of perfection. 58 Immediately after attaining release from all Karmas the soul darts up to the end of the universe. 

                        Tadnantaramūradvam gacchtyālokāntāt. (TS/X/5)


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